75th anniversary of D-Day...

Tidewater

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I hate to jump ahead, but I remember that the Germans damaged the Cherbourg harbor so badly it wasn't usable until into August. With one fabricated harbor out of commission, how did we get enough supplies in until Cherbourg could be repaired? That, I don't remember...
PLUTO and driving LSTs right up onto shore at high tide and off-loading directly onto the beach.
Both Mulberries were damaged, but they scavanged enough from Omaha and dragged them over to Gold to keep Gold open.

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LSTs on Omaha
 
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TIDE-HSV

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PLUTO and driving LSTs right up onto shore at high tide and off-loading directly onto the beach.
Both Mulberries were damaged, but they scavanged enough from Omaha and dragged them over to Gold to keep Gold open.

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LSTs on Omaha
I did a little research and taking weeks to reopen Cherbourg did cause us to have to ration ammo at one point. SPOILER - here is an excellent account of the battle for Cherbourg. However, it starts before where Brad's installment is presently and continues to the end of the battle, so it's a non-read, if you prefer to follow the action day by day with Brad...

Cherbourg
 

crimsonaudio

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June 24, 1944: it's Saturday and in Cherbourg, the troops of the US VII Corps continue their progress - slow and bloody - and the German defenses fall one by one. The German garrison commander, General Schlieben, refuses to surrender and the destruction of the deep water harbor of Cherbourg by the German soldiers begins in earnest and according to the Allied observers it will take several weeks to repair the harbors once the city liberated by the Americans.

The British and the Canadians stop for a few hours while pressing west of Caen in order to be supplied and reinforced by freshly-landed troops, most of them coming from Arromanches after the end of the storm in the English Channel (the storm which destroyed the artificial harbor of Saint-Laurent-sur-Mer). Operation Epsom, planned by Montgomery, has to begin tomorrow - nearly 60,000 men are held ready to launch the offensive towards the Odon river.

Above France, more than 200 USAAF transports fly supply missions from the UK. US 8th Air Force attacks airfields and transportation lines with 334 bombers escorted by 288 fighters and attacks V-weapons sites and other targets with 163 bombers escorted by 118 fighters. US 9th Air Force attacks V-weapons sites, transportation lines, and other targets with fighters and bombers. RAF Bomber Command sends 321 aircraft to attack V-weapons sites during the day and 739 aircraft to attack V-weapons sites overnight.

Over Germany, US 8th Air Force attacks Bremen with 317 bombers and RAF Bomber Command sends 27 aircraft to attack Berlin overnight.

On the eastern front, the 1st Belorussian Front joins the offensive against German Army Group Center, launching a two-pronged assault aimed at the encirclement of Bobruisk. Red Army forces have now advanced as much as 25 miles and the Orsha-Vitebsk rail line is cut. Elements of the 1st Baltic Front and 3rd Belorussian Front are threatening to encircle the German 53rd Corps (part of 3rd Panzer Army) at Vitebsk. Orsha, to the south, is also threatened. The 2nd Belorussian Front presses on Mogilev.

In Italy, British 8th Army conducts major attacks against strong resistance around Vaiano, Chiusi, and Magione. US 5th Army, advancing slowly, captures Follonica. US 12th Air Force conducts limited attacks due to poor weather conditions.

Pictured: View of the town of Valognes, devastated by Allied bombing during the Cherbourg battle, June 24, 1944; note jeep 'Always Ruth' in foreground; US 79th infantry troops in fierce street fighting; US 8th Air Force bomber over Germany, June 24, 1944; Aerial reconnaissance photograph of Majdanek Concentration Camp, Lublin, Poland, June 24, 1944

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Tidewater

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I did a little research and taking weeks to reopen Cherbourg did cause us to have to ration ammo at one point. SPOILER - here is an excellent account of the battle for Cherbourg. However, it starts before where Brad's installment is presently and continues to the end of the battle, so it's a non-read, if you prefer to follow the action day by day with Brad...

Cherbourg
At least he had plenty of ammunition for immediate needs, and the German Navy tried to help out, delivering supplies by E-boat and U-boat, while the Luftwaffe used 107 transport planes to drop 188 tons of supplies into the besieged perimeter.
First, E-boats and U-boats are not exactly the most efficient way to get supplies ot a surrounded army unit. I am amazed they tried.
Second, I was unaware that the Luftwaffe could muster 107 Ju-52s (I assume they used Ju-52s) by June 1944 and I am stunned, given Allied air supremacy that month, that they tried and actually got through.
 
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crimsonaudio

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June 25, 1944: Operation Epsom begins (aka the First Battle of the Odon). The British, stalemated by the Germans and therefore behind schedule since June 18th, attack the German defenses manned by the Hitlerjugend division. 60,000 Canadians and British and 600 tanks begin the attack, divided into an armored division and two independent armored brigades (8th Corps). General Montgomery plans circumvent the town of Caen from the west and to attack the city from the south. The 49th British Infantry division (West Riding) attacks Fontenay but in the outskirts the Panzer Lehr stops them cold. The village of Rauray, located southwest of Tilly, is strongly defended by the 1st SS Armored Corps who battle ferociously for control of the area. The fanatical Hitler Youth fight until death, and the losses are high on both sides of the front.

In Cherbourg, the US forces continue to press forward, slowly but systematically destroying the layered German defenses and are now less than two miles from the heart of the scarred city. Knowing the city is doomed to fall to the Americans, the first German attempts to flee by sea from the city are destroyed by the British light coastal forces. The US and Royal navies (3 battleships, 4 cruisers, and 11 destroyers) begin the Bombardment of Cherbourg, attacking German fortifications near and in the city, engaged in duels with the German casemates batteries, and providing close infantry support. The combined navies' heavy guns neutralize twenty-two of twenty-four assigned battery targets - though none are destroyed, they are eliminated as a threat and taken by US forces. In response to message from General Schlieben in Cherbourg, Rommel replies: In accordance with the Fuehrer's orders you are to hold out to the last round.

Over France, RAF Bomber Command sends 323 aircraft to attack V-weapons sites during the day. US 8th Air Force attacks airfields and widely scattered targets with 500 bombers. US 9th Air Force attacks widely scattered targets with fighters and bombers. Overnight, US 8th Air Force attacks targets around Paris with 429 bombers and utilizes 176 B-17 bombers to drop supplies to French Resistance forces.

Following a visit to British No. 617 Squadron at Woodhall Spa in England, United Kingdom by USAAF Generals Carl Spaatz and James Doolittle, a crated Mustang fighter is delivered as a gift from the United States to Wing Commander Leonard Cheshire. Cheshire wants to use it that evening for a raid on the V-bomb site at Siracourt, France, and his mechanics work all day removing the grease and the guns. One hour after the Lancaster bombers take off Cheshire follows in the Mustang fighter (which type he had never flown before) and he arrives in time to mark the target at low level for the heavy bombers.

On the eastern front, the Red Army attacks on the forces of German Army Group Center continue. Soviet 1st Baltic Front and 3rd Belorussian Front complete the encirclement of Vitebsk. The German 53rd Corps (part of 3rd Panzer Army) is now trapped with 5 divisions. Other forces of 1st Baltic Front cross the Dvina River; other elements of 3rd Belorussian front approach Orsha. Forces of 2nd Belorussian Front continue to attack around Mogilev, clearing the city. The German 4th Army is being forced back. The attacks of 1st Belorussian Fronts threaten to encircle Bobruisk, trapping elements of German 9th Army.

In Italy, elements of US 5th Army capture Piombino. Inland the French Expeditionary Corps (part of 5th Army) and the British 8th Army attack the German-held Albert Line west of Trasimeno Lake, around Chiusi. US 12th Air Force conducts limited attacks in poor weather.

Pictured: British garrison of a QF 6-pounder pass near destroyed Panther 8.5 miles west of Caen.; Cruiser HMS Belfast bombarding German positions off Normandy, early morning June 25, 1944; A heavy German coast artillery shell fell between Texas (background) and Arkansas (foreground) off Cherbourg, France, June 24, 1944; US troops move through the streets of Cherbourg

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UAH

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"Set the delay for what?"
The term Delay reminds me of a story from my Dad who manned a 155 MM "Long Tom". Obviously they would do a lot of night firing against German supply lines and fortified positions. He recalled a firing mission that required a 4 second fuse that ultimately was miss-set as a 1/4 sec. fuse. The round went off as it exited the barrel which would be quite a memorable event to say the least.
 

TIDE-HSV

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First, E-boats and U-boats are not exactly the most efficient way to get supplies ot a surrounded army unit. I am amazed they tried.
Second, I was unaware that the Luftwaffe could muster 107 Ju-52s (I assume they used Ju-52s) by June 1944 and I am stunned, given Allied air supremacy that month, that they tried and actually got through.
Did you read the link I posted? They delivered them.....iron crosses... :D
 

crimsonaudio

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June 26, 1944: as the third week in Normandy draws to a close, the Americans accept the surrender of Lieutenant-General von Schlieben, the general chief the town of Cherbourg, in the Cotentin peninsula. While the city is officially liberated, it is not entirely under control and quite a few pockets of resistance remain for the US forces. Though tested by the combat and bombardment, the civilian population ecstatically welcomes the liberators.

Operation Epsom continues to the west of Caen, and the 49th British Infantry division manages to liberate the village of Fontenay (located 6 miles west of Caen) after a series tough battles against the Hitlerjugend division. Near this village, the British face heavy resistance while liberating Raurey, so the 15th Scottish Infantry Division, supported by Churchill’s tanks of the 31st British Armoured Brigade, joins the attack. Saint-Manvieux-Norrey, located near Carpiquet and of its important air field, is liberated by the 44th Scottish Lowland Brigade after a furious battle which even includes some hand-to-hand combat. The village of Cheux, directly in the southwest of Saint-Manvieux-Norrey, is liberated by the 2nd Glasgow Highlander belonging to the 15th Scottish Infantry division. General Rommel, understanding the strategic importance of Cheux (which is located at a crossroads to several other villages), orders some SS troops to leave the area of Saint-Lo in order to support the Hitlerjugend soldiers, currently overwhelmed by the Scottish infantry. But the air superiority of the Allies is so complete than no serious German movement is possible during daylight hours. The 8th British Corps must seize the Hill 112 at all costs, as it rises high above the surrounding area, but this strategic position is staunchly defended by the Germans, who understand its value. The first British wave of attacks fail quickly, so the the allied ships intervene to support the 8th Corps troops by bombarding Hill 112.

Over France, Allied air operations limited by poor weather conditions.

On the eastern front, Operation Bagration continues. At Vitebsk, elements of 3rd Belorussian Front penetrate the defenses of the trapped German 53rd Corps. During the night, a breakout is attempted but most of the 28,000 German troops are either killed or captured. Other elements of 3rd Belorussian Front capture Orsha, to the south, during the night. Forces of 2nd Belorussian Front capture Mogilev. The attacks of 1st Belorussian Front encircle Bobruisk, trapping 40,000 troops of German 41st Panzer Corps (part of 9th Army). Meanwhile, the first German reinforcements for Army Group Center arrive in Minsk: elements of the German 5th Panzer Division with sPzAbt. 505 attached.

In Italy, the French Expeditionary Corps (part of the US 5th Army) advances north of Radicofani while South African elements of the British 8th Army, to the right, capture Chiusi and Monte Pilonica. US 12th Air Force conducts limited attacks in poor weather.

Pictured: A US Army major looks over Cherbourg from one of the concrete pillboxes above the city, June 26, 1944; Under a white flag German troops led by Generalleutnant Karl Wilhelm von Schlieben (with coat and helmet behind the American with his back to the camera) surrender to American forces. 800 German troops in this underground post surrendered to Captain Preston O' Gordon, commanding a company of the 2nd Bn of the 39th Inf. Rgt, 9th Inf. Div.; Lance Corporal Lodge of 278th Field Company, British Royal Engineers holding a captured German 3 HL shaped charge, near Caen, France, June 26, 1944; A Churchill tank of 7th Royal Tank Regiment, 31st Tank Brigade, supporting infantry of 8th Royal Scots during Operation Epsom, June 26, 1944

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crimsonaudio

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June 27, 1944: It’s Tuesday - today is D+21, marking 3 weeks since the D-Day Invasion at Normandy and the beginning of the liberation of Europe.

In Cherbourg, the last pockets of German resistance fall and the Allied engineers go to the city’s deep-water harbor - one of the major objectives of the Allies since D-Day. The damage the Germans did to the harbors, knowing the city was doomed to fall, is extensive and will require major repairs that will need to be completed as quickly as possible.

To the east, Operation Epsom continues to the west of Caen, and after tough fighting the 49th British Infantry division manages to liberate the village of Raurey. The 15th Scottish Infantry division, after having liberated the village of Cheux, moves towards the bridges on the Odon river - a major objective in Operation Epsom. Their progress is slowed by the elite Panzer Lehr, who are dug in and fight mightily, and the Allied losses climb. However, elements of the 15th Scottish Infantry division manage to establish a beachhead on the right bank of the Odon and attack near the bridge of Tourmanville. Other elements of this division, as well as the 11th Armored Division, cross the bridge and attack the strategic point of Hill 112. By nightfall, the Scots have driven the German front back nearly six miles, an impressive performance although it does not achieve the goals of General Montgomery who (from his headquarters at Blay) has worried about the reports of catastrophic British losses since the beginning of the Operation Epsom.

Over France, RAF Bomber Command sends 104 aircraft to attack V-weapons site near Mimoyeques in a daylight raid. US 8th Air Force attacks V-weapons sites with 141 bombers and attacks airfields and transportation lines with 51 bombers. US 9th Air Force fighters attack transportation lines and other targets with more than 700 sorties. RAF Bomber Command sends 721 aircraft to attack V-weapons sites overnight and 214 aircraft to attack transportation lines overnight.

On the eastern front, the destruction of German Army Group Center continues. Soviet 1st Belorussian Front begins attacking the trapped German 41st Panzer Corps (part of 9th Army) in Bobruisk. To the north 2nd Belorussian pressures German 4th Army and 3rd Belorussian drives southwest toward the Berezina River. Soviet units captured Orsha, Belorussia on the Dneiper River, while near Vitebsk German 53rd Corps is finally destroyed by the 1st Baltic Front.

In Italy, British 8th Army captures Gioiella, Monte Pacciano, and Monte Bagnolo while US 5th Army continues advancing slowly northward. US 12th Air Force conducts limited attacks in poor weather conditions.

Members of the Polish underground Armia Krajowa send a messaged to the UK, noting that their intelligence suggests that the Germans are developing a rocket estimated to be 40 feet long and 6 feet wide.

Pictured: Major General Manton Eddy and another American officer speaking to a captured German officer, Cherbourg, France, June 27, 1944; American troops advancing through a wood near Valognes, on the Cherbourg front. The track is littered with parts of bicyles and ironmongery June 27, 1944; A 6-pdr anti-tank gun crew of the Durham Light Infantry, 49th (West Riding) Division inspect a knocked-out German Panther tank during Operation 'Epsom', June 27, 1944; Situation map from June 27,1944

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TIDE-HSV

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June 27, 1944: It’s Tuesday - today is D+21, marking 3 weeks since the D-Day Invasion at Normandy and the beginning of the liberation of Europe.

In Cherbourg, the last pockets of German resistance fall and the Allied engineers go to the city’s deep-water harbor - one of the major objectives of the Allies since D-Day. The damage the Germans did to the harbors, knowing the city was doomed to fall, is extensive and will require major repairs that will need to be completed as quickly as possible.

To the east, Operation Epsom continues to the west of Caen, and after tough fighting the 49th British Infantry division manages to liberate the village of Raurey. The 15th Scottish Infantry division, after having liberated the village of Cheux, moves towards the bridges on the Odon river - a major objective in Operation Epsom. Their progress is slowed by the elite Panzer Lehr, who are dug in and fight mightily, and the Allied losses climb. However, elements of the 15th Scottish Infantry division manage to establish a beachhead on the right bank of the Odon and attack near the bridge of Tourmanville. Other elements of this division, as well as the 11th Armored Division, cross the bridge and attack the strategic point of Hill 112. By nightfall, the Scots have driven the German front back nearly six miles, an impressive performance although it does not achieve the goals of General Montgomery who (from his headquarters at Blay) has worried about the reports of catastrophic British losses since the beginning of the Operation Epsom.

Over France, RAF Bomber Command sends 104 aircraft to attack V-weapons site near Mimoyeques in a daylight raid. US 8th Air Force attacks V-weapons sites with 141 bombers and attacks airfields and transportation lines with 51 bombers. US 9th Air Force fighters attack transportation lines and other targets with more than 700 sorties. RAF Bomber Command sends 721 aircraft to attack V-weapons sites overnight and 214 aircraft to attack transportation lines overnight.

On the eastern front, the destruction of German Army Group Center continues. Soviet 1st Belorussian Front begins attacking the trapped German 41st Panzer Corps (part of 9th Army) in Bobruisk. To the north 2nd Belorussian pressures German 4th Army and 3rd Belorussian drives southwest toward the Berezina River. Soviet units captured Orsha, Belorussia on the Dneiper River, while near Vitebsk German 53rd Corps is finally destroyed by the 1st Baltic Front.

In Italy, British 8th Army captures Gioiella, Monte Pacciano, and Monte Bagnolo while US 5th Army continues advancing slowly northward. US 12th Air Force conducts limited attacks in poor weather conditions.

Members of the Polish underground Armia Krajowa send a messaged to the UK, noting that their intelligence suggests that the Germans are developing a rocket estimated to be 40 feet long and 6 feet wide.

Pictured: Major General Manton Eddy and another American officer speaking to a captured German officer, Cherbourg, France, June 27, 1944; American troops advancing through a wood near Valognes, on the Cherbourg front. The track is littered with parts of bicyles and ironmongery June 27, 1944; A 6-pdr anti-tank gun crew of the Durham Light Infantry, 49th (West Riding) Division inspect a knocked-out German Panther tank during Operation 'Epsom', June 27, 1944; Situation map from June 27,1944

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The pic of General Eddy, the German Wehrmacht officer and the interpreter brought back a memory. If you look, both Eddy and the officer are looking to the interpreter, who, from his profile may well be Jewish, as many of the interpreters in the European Theater were, because they grew up speaking Yiddish at home. Yiddish is a form of German. Years ago, my decade-long next door neighbor, a physicist at NASA, a member of the von Braun team and member of the Nazi Party, told me that, when they were assembled the first time in Operation Paperclip, they sent in interpreters, whom he said had "heavy Jewish (Yiddish) accents." They then refused to go along with surrendering as a group and staying together. I asked why not. He said "We were afraid they would take us out and shoot us." He was not a Holocaust denier. He referenced what all the Germans had done to the Jews numerous times and, at the time of the 1967 war, praised the Jewish troops, said the Germans were wrong about them, and said they were "as good as any storm trooper." His wife once remarked that everyone knew about the death camps and a threat used to make kids behave was to be careful or you'll "go up the chimney." Of course, she worked in the Reich's Chancellery, so her environment was different from, for example, a villager...
 

crimsonaudio

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June 28, 1944: Operation Epsom continues at Caen, while generals Rommel and von Rundstedt are in Germany, having been called back by Hitler to discuss the current situation in Normandy. Their substitute, general Dollman, understands the need of reinforcing Hill 112, and he launches his last forces in the attack. Regardless, the 11th Armored Division continues to push towards Hill 112, taking the important crossroads along the Orne river.

The 2nd Battalion of Argylls and Sutherlands Highlanders of the 15th Scottish Infantry Division liberate the village of Gravus on the right bank of the Odon river and capture its two bridges. Meanwhile, the 23rd Hussars liberate the town of Baron-sur-Odon, directly to the northwest of Gravus, which is located on the road towards Hill 112, which the 8th Riffle Brigade and the tanks of the 3rd RTR reach after noon. 44th RTR and the 2nd KRCC continue their progress to the village of Evrecy, but are pushed back by the counter-attack of 9th and 10th SS Panzer Division which attack the west side of the British forces. The 21st German Panzer Division attacks the east side of the British troops and many soldiers of the 159th British Brigade are encircled in the outing areas of the village of Mouen, North of Baron-sur-Odon and on he right bank of the Odon river. The counter-attack organized by the General Dollman, which aims at recovering Hill 112, turns into a massacre for the German soldiers who must retreat following the heavy losses by the men of the 11th British Armored Division, which immediately holes up on the left bank of Odon. Terrified by this reversal, general Dollman commits suicide during the night of June 28th.

In the Cotentin Peninsula, American forces of US 1st Army prepare to eliminate German resistance in the direction of Cap de la Hague.

Over France, RAF Bomber Command sends 103 aircraft to attack V-weapons site near Wizernes in a daylight raid. US 8th Air Force attacks various targets with 341 bombers and attacks La Perthe airfield with 30 fighters. Kriegsmarine torpedo boat Kondor, already damaged, sunk by Allied air attack at Le Havre. RAF Bomber Command sends 202 aircraft to attack transportation lines overnight.

On the eastern front, Soviet operations against German Army Group Center continue. Elements of the German 41st Panzer Corps break out of the Bobruisk encirclement during the night. Weak Soviet infantry forces of 1st Belorussian Front are unable to hold. About 15,000 of the roughly 40,000 manage to escape. Meanwhile, in the north, the Soviet Karelian Front forces reach Petrozavodsk and also cross the Murmansk rail line farther north.

In Italy, British 8th Army reaches Chianciano. US 5th Army pushes northward although many units withdrawn to prepare for other operations. US 12th Air Force conducts limited attacks in poor weather.

Pictured: US Army troops escort German POWs through Cherbourg, June 28, 1944; US Army troops attempt to blow up a German pillbox near Cherbourg, June 28, 1944; US Army soldiers setting up a 155mm howitzer in France, June 28, 1944; a Hitlerjugend (Hitler youth) sniper is the prisoner of soldiers from the 49th British I.D.

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crimsonaudio

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June 29,1944: In Cherbourg, the VII Corps of general Collins eliminates the last pockets of resistance, leaving the town entirely in the hands of the Americans. The repair work on the harbors has begun but it is going to take a while (likely several weeks) before the vital deep-water harbors are available for docking supply ships.

North of Saint-Lo, "punch" attacks by the 115th American Infantry Regiment continue against the German defensive positions near the Wood of Bretel. The Allies progress is measured foot by foot and at high cost through the Normand bocage and hedges, which form almost impenetrable walls.

At Caen, Operation Epsom continues - the Scots of the 15th Infantry Division take the areas surrounding Gravus, but the German Panzer Lehr strongly defends the village and counterattacks the 2nd Battalion of Argylls. Tough battles with heavy weaponry commence but the allied air superiority (benefitting from from good weather conditions) allows the destruction of the German armor. The 11th British Armored division, which has been holed up since the night before, leaves the strategic position of the Hill 112. Lieutenant-General Dempsey fears a massive counter-attack of the Hitlerjugend forces and prefers to pull back tanks of the 11th Armored division to the left bank of the Odon river. Only the men of 4th King's Shropshire Light Infantry defend the position. The Germans attack and take Hill 112 again - the battles are intense, sometimes even resorting to hand-to-hand combat. The dead strew the banks of the Odon river and the battlefields in the surroundings of the hill 112. The spectacle is atrocious, the losses are terrifying. Several thousand British soldiers (more than 4,000 by nightfall) have been killed or injured since the beginning of Operation Epsom (just four days ago). Montgomery worries about the the staggering losses and starts to consider an end of Operation Epsom.

Over France, RAF Bomber Command sends 286 aircraft to attack V-weapons sites during the day and US 9th Air Force bombers and fighters attack gun positions, transportation lines, and other targets.

Over Germany, US 8th Air Force attacks Leipzig with 705 bombers (15 are lost) escorted by 674 fighters.

On the eastern front, the initial objectives of the Soviet summer offensive are reached. The 1st Belorussian Front captures Bobruisk. The forces under Rokossovsky have destroyed over 350 armored vehicles, 2600 artillery pieces, killed 50,000 troops and captured 20,000 Germans in less than a week. The forces of 1st Belorussian now aim northwest toward Minsk with the aim of encircling German 4th Army, and the remnants of 9th Army, with forces of the 3rd Belorussian Front advancing southwest, while 2nd Belorussian pins down the German forces east of Minsk.

In Italy, British 8th Army continues advancing as German rear guards withdraw and US 5th Army continues pushing northward, attacking around Belvedere, Sassetta, and Cecina. US 12th Air Force aircraft attack bridges, transportation lines, airfields, supply depots, and other targets.

Pictured: Partial view illustrating the Cherbourg Arsenal after the German surrender, June 29, 1944; A column of German prisoners, captured in fighting for the outer defenses of Cherbourg are marched to a prisoner of war stockade behind the lines on June 29, 1944.; Fuel tanks of the B-24H Liberator “Little Warrior” with the 861st Bomb Squadron explode over Fallersleben, Germany after anti-aircraft hit, June 29, 1944. Photo taken by Clifford A Stocking, waist gunner on “Green Hornet.”; The 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division near Caen

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UAH

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June 29,1944: In Cherbourg, the VII Corps of general Collins eliminates the last pockets of resistance, leaving the town entirely in the hands of the Americans. The repair work on the harbors has begun but it is going to take a while (likely several weeks) before the vital deep-water harbors are available for docking supply ships.

North of Saint-Lo, "punch" attacks by the 115th American Infantry Regiment continue against the German defensive positions near the Wood of Bretel. The Allies progress is measured foot by foot and at high cost through the Normand bocage and hedges, which form almost impenetrable walls.

At Caen, Operation Epsom continues - the Scots of the 15th Infantry Division take the areas surrounding Gravus, but the German Panzer Lehr strongly defends the village and counterattacks the 2nd Battalion of Argylls. Tough battles with heavy weaponry commence but the allied air superiority (benefitting from from good weather conditions) allows the destruction of the German armor. The 11th British Armored division, which has been holed up since the night before, leaves the strategic position of the Hill 112. Lieutenant-General Dempsey fears a massive counter-attack of the Hitlerjugend forces and prefers to pull back tanks of the 11th Armored division to the left bank of the Odon river. Only the men of 4th King's Shropshire Light Infantry defend the position. The Germans attack and take Hill 112 again - the battles are intense, sometimes even resorting to hand-to-hand combat. The dead strew the banks of the Odon river and the battlefields in the surroundings of the hill 112. The spectacle is atrocious, the losses are terrifying. Several thousand British soldiers (more than 4,000 by nightfall) have been killed or injured since the beginning of Operation Epsom (just four days ago). Montgomery worries about the the staggering losses and starts to consider an end of Operation Epsom.

Over France, RAF Bomber Command sends 286 aircraft to attack V-weapons sites during the day and US 9th Air Force bombers and fighters attack gun positions, transportation lines, and other targets.

Over Germany, US 8th Air Force attacks Leipzig with 705 bombers (15 are lost) escorted by 674 fighters.

On the eastern front, the initial objectives of the Soviet summer offensive are reached. The 1st Belorussian Front captures Bobruisk. The forces under Rokossovsky have destroyed over 350 armored vehicles, 2600 artillery pieces, killed 50,000 troops and captured 20,000 Germans in less than a week. The forces of 1st Belorussian now aim northwest toward Minsk with the aim of encircling German 4th Army, and the remnants of 9th Army, with forces of the 3rd Belorussian Front advancing southwest, while 2nd Belorussian pins down the German forces east of Minsk.

In Italy, British 8th Army continues advancing as German rear guards withdraw and US 5th Army continues pushing northward, attacking around Belvedere, Sassetta, and Cecina. US 12th Air Force aircraft attack bridges, transportation lines, airfields, supply depots, and other targets.

Pictured: Partial view illustrating the Cherbourg Arsenal after the German surrender, June 29, 1944; A column of German prisoners, captured in fighting for the outer defenses of Cherbourg are marched to a prisoner of war stockade behind the lines on June 29, 1944.; Fuel tanks of the B-24H Liberator “Little Warrior” with the 861st Bomb Squadron explode over Fallersleben, Germany after anti-aircraft hit, June 29, 1944. Photo taken by Clifford A Stocking, waist gunner on “Green Hornet.”; The 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division near Caen

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I have viewed Montgomery's efforts in France only in passing but one impression I have is the lack of close air support for ground troops going up against German armor. The allies were completely out gunned by the Panther and Tiger tanks and the Germans had vastly more combat experience. Without being a military scholar it just seems that Montgomery and Eisenhower were using WW l tactics against a well experienced and led Wehrmact. Had Hitler allowed his military to direct the Normandy campaign it would be difficult to predict the outcome. In the end it was Hitler's constant meddling from Berlin, Allied control of the air, the shear weight of numbers i.e. losing three Sherman's to ultimately kill one Tiger and the Russian onslaught from the East that determined the outcome in Normandy.
 

81usaf92

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I have viewed Montgomery's efforts in France only in passing but one impression I have is the lack of close air support for ground troops going up against German armor. The allies were completely out gunned by the Panther and Tiger tanks and the Germans had vastly more combat experience. Without being a military scholar it just seems that Montgomery and Eisenhower were using WW l tactics against a well experienced and led Wehrmact.
Montgomery mostly was a glory hound that was obsessed with not being a footnote in history behind the other great Allied generals like Ike, Patton, and Zhukov. Other than beating an ill supplied Rommel, the only thing he accomplished was the blunder known as "Market Garden". Eisenhower only gave into the dumb idea to show Monty that he still mattered... Yes Monty still thought in the early WWI strategies of "It takes just one good punch".


In the end it was Hitler's constant meddling from Berlin, .
That's a double edged sword. Most of his generals in the early going were very conservative, and were more concerned with the numbers and lack of experience of the Post Versailles German military. I mean at the time of the invasion of the Sudatenland the German armor was still 80% horse driven, and many generals were hesitant of a possible war with major powers. More or less, Hitler's meddling actually probably defeated France. His problem(s) was that he probably put the absolute worst person in charge of the Air Force and Versailles destroyed the German navy.

Where Hitler's meddling ultimately costed him was on the Eastern Front, and how to handle the USA-Japanese conflict. But he did relinquish command to the Army in 1943 after the disaster at Stalingrad. But Mannstein vs Zhukov was a mismatch in men and generalship. After Kursk, everyone was trying to find a way to just "not lose" the war.

A war with Russia was probably inevitable because there are sources that lean towards Stalin planning a betrayal against Hitler in the next few years. So maybe Hitler was right in that he stood a better chance in going for a surprise attack, but he should've destroyed Monty in Africa before attacking Russia. But still he probably signed his death warrant with him standing by the Japanese after Pearl Harbor.